Author: Thierry LEBOUCQ

Which video conferencing mobile application to reduce your impact?

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Article updated with new measures on StarLeaf, Rainbow and Circuit by Unify on May 19, 2020.
Article updated with new measures on Hangouts and Google Meet on May 4, 2020.
Article updated with new measures on Tixeo and Infomaniak Meet on April 23, 2020.
Article updated with new measures on JITSI and Teams on April 15, 2020.

The current “stay at home” context mechanically increases the use of online collaboration tools, in particular videoconferencing tools. This leads to a pressure on the network and more particularly to a significant load on the servers of each solution. It is therefore important from an efficiency point of view but also an environmental impact one to choose the simplest and most efficient solution.

For this study, we compare 14 videoconferencing applications: Whereby, Webex (by CISCO), Skype, Zoom, JITSI, Microsoft Teams, Tixeo, Infomaniak Meet, Hangouts, GoToMeeting, Google Meet, StarLeaf, Rainbow and Circuit by Unify.

For each of these applications, measured on an Samsung S7 smartphone (Android 8), the following three scenarios were carried out through our GREENSPECTOR Test Runner, allowing manual tests to be carried out over a period of 1 minute:

  • Audio conference only in one-to-one
  • One-to-one audio and video conference (camera activated on each side)
  • One-to-one audio conference and screen sharing

Each measurement is the average of 3 homogeneous measurements (with a small standard deviation). The consumption measured on the given smartphone according to a Wi-Fi type network can be different on a laptop PC with a wired network for example.

Measurement of energy consumption (mAh)

The StarLeaf application consumes the most of all three scenarios. This is due to the fact that the consumption in audio only mode, audio + screen sharing or audio + video is the same. This is a special case of our study. The GoToMeeting application is the least energy-consuming, closely followed by Hangouts, Zoom and Webex.

The energy consumption of all these applications is on average 2.1 times higher when adding video to audio and only slightly higher when adding screen sharing to audio (+14%). It’s not a surprise, avoid sharing with a camera to consume less energy on your devices during your video conferences and save your autonomy and the lifespan of your battery!

Measurement of data exchanged (MB)

GoToMeeting and Webex are the two applications that consume the least data. JITSI and Infomaniak Meet are the ones that consumes the most. Overall and without any surprise we note that the audio scenario is the one that consumes the least data. While the scenario activating both audio + video stream is the most consuming one.

The data consumption of all of these applications is 13 times higher when adding video to audio and almost doubled when adding screen sharing to audio (+77%). It’s not a surprise, avoid sharing video and limit your screen sharing to consume less data on networks in your video conferences!

It should be noted that these significant differences are mainly due to the significant audio-video consumption of the JITSI application with 35 MB transferred in 1 minute compared to 1.13 MB for GoToMeeting! JITSI‘s optimized mode does not reduce this data impact (33.4 MB / minute). Infomaniak Meet based on the JITSI engine meets the same volume anomaly on average and mainly on the audio + video part without improvement with the optimized mode.

Projection of the measured carbon impact data (gEqCO2)

A conference on mobile is 3 times more impactful for the environment when we add video to audio.

The carbon impact projection of all of these applications is on average 3 times greater when adding video to audio and higher when adding screen sharing to audio (+35%). It’s no surprise, avoid sharing video and limit your screen sharing to less impact infrastructure (network, datacenter) and on your devices in the context of video conferences!

Without any surprise, a large part of the carbon impacts are located on the network part (63%) but the impacts part on the device (28%) should not be overlooked!

The JITSI and Infomaniak Meet apps even averages 5.8 times more impact when adding video to audio and 40% more when adding screen sharing.

In the Skype vs Teams battle at Microsoft, the overall results are very close (6%). The Carbon impact is lower for Skype with a lower data impact but higher energy consumption on the mobile than Teams.

Which applications optimize energy and data consumption?

Only Whereby and Webex could be tested on optimization features for the mobile version.

The Whereby application with its “Mobile mode” setting which limits the resolution of the stream as well as other resource consumption optimizations. And Webex thanks to its configuration allowing to deactivate High-definition playback of videos only. Whereby saves 21% on energy consumption on the audio side, 15% on the audio and video side and 3% on the screen sharing side. These gains are nevertheless low considering the results obtained by the application that consumes the most audio and video mode from our panel.

On the Webex side, the gains are barely visible as limited only to the video part. It’s barely 5% gain in the Audio and Video scenario for the energy and carbon impact. The exchanged data is even slightly higher in audio and video mode.

The optimized JITSI application does not improve the data or energy impact. Power consumption is even higher in screen sharing mode in this optimized mode. However, there is a reduction in the data loaded in this optimized but minor mode (11% on average). Same findings for Infomaniak Meet.

The optimization of the TIXEO parameters makes it possible to considerably reduce the impact in audio + video mode and allows it to be classified as the 2nd least impacting application in the panel.

As for the Zoom application, a notification of battery overconsumption appeared several times during the measurements. Although we can optimize the video quality on PC, it does not seem possible to configure this on mobile. Without this optimization, the application becomes the most energy-consuming application in audio + video mode.

GREENSPECTOR advices:

  • Promote audio only during your conferences: the video stream will tend to consume much more especially when sharing video via camera.
  • We recommend that publishers provide optimization options to the user and make them as accessible as possible even by default.
  • Prefer videoconferences over travel by car!
  • Comparison for 2 people who talk to each other for 3 hours in video + video (1 gEqCO2 on average per minute) when one of the two made 20 kms (112 g eqCO2 / km in France) round trip for a face-to-face face,
  • In videoconference: 180 * 1 * 2 = 360 gEqCO2.
  • By car: 112 * 20 = 2.4 kg EqCO2. Or 6.7 times more for the physical one-to-one.

Best 2019 Android apps and games ranking by GREENSPECTOR

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Google unveiled the best of 2019 Google Playstore in early December last year. Thanks to the GREENSPECTOR App Mark technology, we are revealing the ranking of these applications according to the App Mark, which assesses applications according to 5 criteria: performance, sobriety, discretion, inclusion and, of course, ecology.

Favorite 2019 applications ranking

At the top of this ranking we find the following three applications: Boosted, 21 Buttons and Omio. Only 1/3 of the applications are below the global ecoscore average. Among the 3 least sober applications of this ranking, 2 are strongly impacted by a zero score on at least one of the key indicators. In fact, the Plant Nanny application presents a score of zero on the ecological side (32 MB of data loaded during our evaluation), for the Curio application, it is the performance indicator which is zero, impacted by the time of application loading more than 23 seconds.

Focus on Boosted vs Music Zen

Here we compare the application with the best GREENSPECTOR App Mark (Bosted) versus the lowest ranked application in this ranking (Music Zen).

Even if the energy consumption is not the strong point of Boosted, MusicZen consumes 2 times more battery than Boosted on an identical route … what not to be “Zen” For its autonomy! Simple explanations: there are many trackers in this application which alters its performance and its sobriety. As a reminder, an added tracker also means an average of 8.5% more resource consumption.

Favorite 2019 games apps ranking

On the podium of the highest ranked game applications, we find: Assassin’s Creed Rebellion, Brawl Stars and Fishing Life. We observe that the last three game applications have a zero score for the ecology indicator. This is explained by two highly high technical criteria: the volume of data loaded as well as the CO2 impact. By the way, gaming applications are also more impactful on average than other applications.

Focus on Assassin’s Creed Rebellion vs Diner Dash Adventures

This time we are comparing the Assassin’s Creed Rebellion application versus Diner Dash Adventures.

To understand everything about these indicators, we invite you to read the following article 5 success keys for your application!

Energy consumption of the most popular e-commerce websites in France

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We measured the energy and resources consumption of the most popular e-commerce websites in France. Thanks to a recent study of SimilarWeb and ECN introducing a ranking of the Top 100 e-commerce websites, we selected the top 30 websites in this ranking and compared them according to their consumption of energy and mobile resources based on a simple functional path representative of their market activity.

Why measure energy consumption?

A website that consumes less energy will be more efficient because it will be “frugal”, with latency times shorter especially on a mobile phone that can sometimes be already crowded, older or low-tech. We can talk about a better “inclusion” business if the service responds in an acceptable way for users who do not always benefit from a favorable network conditions (degraded or saturated network) in their navigation.
The battery life will also be a curb for the user who does not wish to activate services too greedy for its autonomy, especially if it intends to use them very regularly. But surfing the web via mobile is it consumer on a smartphone? In our 2019 study of the Top 30 most popular mobile apps in the world, we had measured web browsing which is on average the most consuming category compared to video applications, video games or social networks. Tt’s enough to make buyers doubt and value their battery life.

In addition, a less energy-consuming website, and this is not the least argument, ultimately improves the website SEO

Indeed, the statistics of several tens of millions of visits in the month make it possible to imagine the extent of the impact throughout the chain of dissemination of the content and services of these websites. Even a slight improvement will benefit from a very important multiplier of reduction on the totality of the impact, whether on the user side or the server and network infrastructure. The digital actors must absolutely take into account this dimension of environmental responsibility in their business digital because as recalls the Shift Project, the digital climate impact will be equivalent in 2025 to that of light vehicles.

The 5 websites with the lowest energy consumption and the 5 most consuming ones

On the podium of the most energy-efficient websites, we find in first place the Rue Du Commerce website (10.6 mAh), LDLC (11.3 mAh) and ShowroomPrivé (12 mAh). Not far behind are the websites : Auchan (12.1 mAh) and Apple (12.4 mAh). The Rue Du Commerce website consumes 6.2% less than the second most energy-efficient one: LDLC and nearly 27% less than the average ranking (14.5 mAh).

On the side of the most energy-consuming websites, we find in last place the La Redoute website (18.1 mAh) followed by [Leroy Merlin] (https: //www.leroymerlin.fr/) (17.6 mAh) and Airbnb (16.8 mAh). Finally, the websites Boulanger and Zalando (16.4 mAh) share the 26th and 27th place. The most energy-hungry website La Redoute consumes 24% more than the average of the ranking.

Projection

If we project the measured consumption on a Nexus 6 (voltage 3, 7 Volt), therefore only on the smartphone of the user, according to the average time of visit on a month: the flop 3 of the navigations the more consumers over the month are the sites: Leboncoin (99.34 MWh / month), Amazon (56.36 MWh / month), Ebay (19.34 MWh / month) . These 3 sites are at the same time penalized by a large number of visits, a rather long average visit time and a strong consumption of the purchase route.

The top 3 is made up of RueDuCommerce, LDLC and Auchan which are much less frequented but which also have the advantage of being in the best students on the market. consumption of the purchase route. If a site like Leboncoin was at the consumption level of the RueDuCommerce website, they could save their smartphone users more than 30 GWh/month, the equivalent of a country’s electricity consumption. like Haiti.

The projection of this Top 30 e-commerce websites, if all users had a Nexus 6 smartphone according to statistics visits indicated, would be about 3.7 TWh per year, the equivalent of the annual consumption of a country like Somalia. The server and network impacts were not taken into account in this study. It would be interesting to be able to estimate server side with the editors.

Energy consumption of 30 e-commerce websites

Only 12 websites are below the average (14.5 mAh) of this ranking. There is a 1.7 ratio between the least energy-consuming site (Rue Du Commerce) and the most energy-intensive (La Redoute).

Methodology

The measurements were carried out by our laboratory on the basis of a standardized protocol: Nexus 6 Smartphone, Android 6, Wi-Fi, low brightness. 3 campaigns were conducted and the value used is the average of these 3 measurements. The measurement campaigns respect a specific user scenario adapted to each website (launch of Google Chrome, access to the URL of the website, search scenario, selection, basket and display basket)

Summary table of the 5 best sites and the 5 worst ones

WebsiteEnergy consumption (mAh)Exchanged data (Mo)Memory consumption (Mo)
RueDuCommerce10.62337.5
LDLC11.36.3356.4
ShowroomPrivé123.7335.6
Auchan12.14.8347
Apple12.46.6353.6
Zalando16.46332.2
Boulanger16.46332
AirBnb16.86.9371.5
LeroyMerlin17.64346.4
La Redoute18.15390.9

Do you want to access the results of a particular site? Contact us!

Find our latest study: GPS Apps
Comparative study ideas? Contact us!

2019 Ranking of GPS applications

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Smartphone navigation apps are our daily tools for car, bike or on-foot navigation. They are regularly used in our business or personal activities. It is also a precious tool for holidays. And it is not uncommon to have two applications installed.

Geolocation activity can be activated on your smartphone but it will cost you an average battery consumption that doubles or even triple depending on the applications and use cases! Pay attention to this parameter for a level of precision that will be in most cases, useless. The particularity of these tools is that they can work in online mode and others only work in offline mode with pre-loading map data before navigation. Even though there are significant differences between these 10 applications for a result of movement and information quite comparable. It’s up to you to choose the most relevant!

For this GPS applications ranking, GREENSPECTOR measured the most used apps on the Google Play Store.

Energy consumption for 1 journey of 3 minutes

Regarding the battery consumption for a simple journey over a period of 3 minutes corresponding to an average simulated movement of 40 km per hour, we observe a very varied consumption between those applications. There is a 45% difference in consumption between Here WeGo and Coyote, both in the online mapping category.

Exchanged data for 1 journey of 3 minutes

In terms of data, Here WeGo and Tomtom GPS are by far the most consuming ones with an exchanged data between 2 and 3 MB. TomTom GPS is both a consuming app in prior mapping (1.3 GB pre-loaded) but also in exchanged data during navigation. ViaMichelin is the least data consuming one for online mapping applications with 113 KB of data consumed.

Memory consumption for 1 journey of 3 minutes

There is a 70% difference in memory consumption between Waze and ViaMichelin, to make this journey in a panel where all applications consume between 241 MB and 800 MB. The application Waze, one of the least consuming, will be able to work on older platforms while the ViaMichelin application will be more demanding on the phone’s memory requirements.

Ecoscore on a standardized journey without movement

The EcoScore reflects the consumption of resources (CPU, memory, data,…) and energy on the first screen of the application. The top 1 award goes to Google Maps, which scores 81 out of 100! In heavy applications in resource consumption and energy TomToom GPS, Waze and Navmii are much more resourceful. MapFactor wasn’t ranked because the application has a different behavior on its first screen compared to the other applications.

Methodology

ApplicationVersionDownloadsPlaystore gradeOfflinePrior download (GB)Energy consumption (mAh)Exchanged data (MB)Memory consumption (MB)Ecoscore (/100)
Coyote11.1.9201 000 000+3.9No056.30.34243143
Google Maps9.67.15 000 000 000+4.3No044.80.47830482
Here WeGo2.0.1317310 000 000+4.4No038.82.234346
MapFactor5.0.6310 000 000+4.5Yes1.254.600N/A
Navmii3.7.1310 000 000+4.0Yes2.248.50.06955032
Offline Maps Navigation17.9.410 000 000+4.7YesFrance=1.4 Regional= 10-200 Mo41.5079653
Sygic18.1.450 000 000+4.4YesFrance=2 Regional= 7-250 Mo40.80.03524144
TomTom GPS1.17.710 000 000+4.1Yes1.355.92.7535240
ViaMichelin8.3.35 000 000+4.3No 51.10.11363359
Waze4.52.5.5100 000 000+4.6No 52.50.36440438

The measurements were made by our laboratory on the basis of a standardized protocol: Smartphone Nexus 6, Android 6, Wi-Fi, low brightness. 4 campaigns were carried out and the value used is the average of these 4 measures.

To carry out these measurements, we measured at the same time a technical course with a phase of loading of the application, a phase of inactivity foreground with displayed app in the foreground and a phase of inactivity with app in the background. This step was done without any movement. Only 9 applications were ranked out of the 10 in ecoscores because one wasn’t comparable with the others on its first screen operation. To measure the movement consumption of these tools, we simulated a movement of less than 5km with a GPS data simulator that allows us to obtain a result very close to a real result.

Find our lastest ranking: Energy consumption of the 30 most popular mobile apps in the world
Any ranking ideas? Contact-us!

Benchmark study of the web eco-responsibility of 20 Postal Companies in the world

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Postal services around the world are changing. Digital has gone through this … the traditional mail business is only 28% for La Poste Group in France. New businesses all based on digital tools are being validated or deployed to take over and allow new levers of growth and profitability for these organizations that have often lived on monopoly situations. All this digital transformation is accompanied by a societal transformation and a consideration of environmental issues.

Where are these companies in this transformation? Few indices or indicators of concrete results of this triple transformation. The website of these organizations is a “visible” symbol of this transformation. The site:

  • Is it inclusive (People), do you need a lot of resources to navigate and do you put a lot of people in the service?
  • is he sober (Planet), consumes a lot of energy on a device, a lot of requests on our servers, a lot of data on networks
  • Is it powerful (Profit)? Is it displayed quickly?

Admittedly, the perimeters of postal activity in the world vary significantly from one country to another in the context of this economic transformation. Admittedly, the proposed benchmark is not exhaustive and does not measure all the pages of the site. It nevertheless allows to get a good idea of the level of maturity of digital eco-design.

Synthesis of results by Greenspector ECOSCORE

The Ecoscore takes into account the energy consumption, the memory used, the data exchanged, the number of queries and other metrics that contribute to the level of eco-design of a Web to a score of 100 for a website or a page. It is a perfect synthesis of this study and all the indicators presented below that will make it possible to explain the main points of work to analyze and improve.

An excellent result for Belgium, example of sobriety on all the fields and which surpasses all the other countries in our benchmark. Good job for Norway and Great Britain ! To be improved for South Korea, Portugal, Canada, France, Denmark, Austria, Luxembourg and Finland. France in the second third must progress on this topic of digital eco-responsibility. Last rankings for Italy, Spain and Brazil.

The energy consumption of a website:

This energy consumption will vary between 3 and 5 mAh, or 66% difference on a simple scenario between the Belgian website and the Finnish website. Note that the distribution is rather homogeneous and that the average is about 4 mAh. The French Post is in 5th place with 3.71 mAh.

Data exchanged:

The difference is very important between the less and the more “voracious in data”. we can divide by 11 between the Belgian Post Office (0.38 MB) and the Australian Post (over 4.4 MB). The French company ranks 6th.

Memory Consumption:

Belgium still has the place of honor in this classification with a consumption very lower than all other websites with a small difference between the best and the last, Portugal (42%) but a gap of 20% between the second and the last. latest. France ranks in 11th position.

CPU Consumption:

A significant consumption ratio between the first, Belgium and the last Spain (ratio of over 4). France ranks 9th.

The number of requests sent to the data centers:

An important ratio between the first, Belgium and the last, Italy with a ratio of 36! Many requests for Finland (171), France (174) and Italy (180). France and Finland share the last places with about 10 kb of data averaged per query versus 117 kb on average for Ireland. The number of requests is a factor increasing the consumption on the device of the user but also on the solicitation of the servers. Objective: group queries to limit the consumption.

Table of raw results:

CountriesWebsitesEnergy consumption (mAh)Data exchanged (100 MB)Memory consumption (100 MB)Number of queriesCPU (%)Ecoscore (on 100)
Germanywww.deutschepost.de4,42,5574,4782,3%47
Austriawww.post.at3,93,4604,6453,3%41
Australiawww.auspost.com.au3,84,4575,5552,6%50
Belgiumwww.bpost.be30,3433,250,9%83
Brazilwww.correios.com.br3,82,9579,4932,5%32
Canadawww.canadapost.ca3,93575,2782,7%43
South Koreawww.koreapost.kr4,34,3552,2353,7%44
Spainwww.correos.es4,12,7587,61063,9%33
Danemarkwww.postnord.dk4,12,4567,5513,9%42
Finlandwww.posti.fi4,91,7578,41713,3%39
Francewww.laposte.fr3,72572,71742,4%43
Great Britainwww.royalmail.com3,20,73514,2611,9%65
Irlandwww.anpost.com3,73,5594,7312,2%50
Italywww.poste.it4,63,5568,21803,6%36
Luxembourgwww.post.lu3,63,1544,01102,5%41
Norwaywww.posten.no4,31,9537,8511,7%66
Netherlandswww.postnl.nl3,31,6562,8881,3%55
Portugalwww.ctt.pt3,94,3618,6682,9%44
Swisswww.post.ch3,83,5561,5472,4%55
USAwww.usps.com4,33,15221132,1%49
      
Average 3,92,7561,2822,6%47,9
Min 30,3433,250,9%32
Max 4,94,4618,61803,9%83

This test was performed under the following conditions:

  • Measured the 06/28/2019 on real device Galaxy S7 (Android 8)
  • Private Wi-Fi network, Chrome browser
  • Protocol used 1 minute and 10 seconds of test on the homepage: 20 seconds of loading, 20 seconds of idle foreground, 10 seconds of scroll, 20 seconds in idle background.

Energy consumption of the 30 most popular mobile apps in the world

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All our digital uses have an impact of energy consumption and in a more global way in technical resources (RAM, CPU, Data, …). The environmental impact of digital is today important and especially in strong progression. Today, according to the project shift * report, the impact of digital in terms of greenhouse gas represents 3.7% of total emissions (GHG) on the planet and could represent, according to the assumptions, between 7 and 8.5% in 2025, the equivalent of the GHG emissions of light vehicles on the planet (8% of GHG). This is reinforced by an annual growth of 8% which remains and will remain sustained despite technological progress.

Access to information, content and services is now predominantly done on smartphones, which has become the flagship of digital activity. We connect more and more, from everywhere, and at any time.
Today, the consumption of smartphones (including the use phase and the manufacturing phase) represents 11% of the digital energy consumption. Sensitive point of this energy consumption for the smartphone that is at the battery and is the focus of all our attention and those of smartphone manufacturers. We often accuse our smartphones of lack and / or loss of autonomy … Yet it is the applications installed on the smartphone that consume! … and which also degrade its battery capacity over time. Mobile applications are now used, for the most deployed, by billions of people (more than 5 billion mobile users). Today, an application like Facebook, the most popular, is used by more than 2 billion active users per month on smartphone. The impact of these applications is therefore considerable and a significant improvement in the sobriety of one of them can have rapidly very positive consequences on the ecological impacts.

As part of the Vivatech 2019, with our partner ATOS, we wanted to raise the awareness of major digital players by benchmarking the consumption of resources and energy of the 30 most popular applications.

5 key points of this study

  • The pre-loading of the time line data is consumption factor. The fact that this content is video type like TikTok makes it a consumer application for the device but even more so on the network and the datacenter. An ecological heresy when you know that this application is used by millions of people around the world..
  • Web browsing consumes a lot of energy because the pages include many scripts, more and more (trackers, advertisements, differentiating features, …) that are not well managed by the hardware of the smartphone. Calling consumes half the average on average than surfing.
  • In each category of applications large discrepancies exist for near functionalities which can translate avoidable mess and thus gains of accessible optimizations. 30-40%?
  • Yes, listening to music on Youtube is an ecological “mistake” when you know the consumption of a Spotify. Features “listening music without image” favored on video players are expected.
  • The global electricity consumption of digital is at the scale of a continent (Russia + Japan combined), that of the use of applications on smartphones is that of a European country (equivalent to Ireland). 1/3 of gain conceivable when positioning the average of the category on the lowest consumption of the category (equivalent functionality). On a global scale, a nuclear slice avoided. For our smartphones, 2 to 3 hours of autonomy and more!

GREENSPECTOR will be present at Viva Technology 2019 event on May 16-18 in the Atos Innovation Lab

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GREENSPECTOR will be present at Viva Technology 2019 event on May 16-18 in the Atos Innovation Lab

We are proud to have been selected by Atos, gold partner of the 4th edition of the event. With more than 100,000 participants, 9,000 startups and 125 countries represented, Viva Technology is the key meeting point for digital innovation for startups and investors. An opportunity for us to present our web, mobile and IoT applications efficiency solution and its benefits in terms of performance, device autonomy and user experience.

“Thierry LEBOUCQ, Président de GREENSPECTOR”
GREENSPECTOR is very proud to be present in the ATOS Innovation Village for this 2019 edition of Viva Technology. This is a continuation of the partnership between the ATOS Group and Greenspector after the 48H technos in 2017, the Digital Industry Summit in 2018. This represents above all a “sustainable” brand of trust from our ATOS partner, which goes beyond the display, expresses in concrete feedback on the operation of our solution including the development of mobile applications, the commitment of the company in terms of CSR and Green but especially the desire in the future to build on our solutions to better serve its projects and customers and to differentiate itself in its markets. After successful first projects with the ATOS group, we must now integrate and systematize this e-services efficiency approach into the Group’s Delivery processes and move from the innovative product to the systematic manufacturing label; Vivatech 2019 is a new stage “communicating” and demonstrative of this common trajectory.

Come and meet us at Atos’s Lab (D39-008) the 16-18 of May, we will answer all your questions. Don’t hesitate to contact us now and schedule an appointment.

Catch GREENSPECTOR at the IEEE Globecom 2018 conference in Abu Dhabi next 10th December!

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Thierry LEBOUCQ, President of GREENSPECTOR will speak at the panel entitled “Challenges and opportunities for sustainable development in 5G and beyond 5G” at the IEEE Globecom conference to be held from 9 to 13 December 2018 in Abu Dhabi.

Continue reading “Catch GREENSPECTOR at the IEEE Globecom 2018 conference in Abu Dhabi next 10th December!”